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What is required for chrism should of course be such as is sanctioned by the usage of the Church. Theol., III, 135.) Now, however, according to existing legislation, the addition of balsam is requisite for lawful chrism, but whether it is necessary for the validity of the sacrament, assuming that chrism is the matter of confirmation, this is a matter about which theologians do not agree. Bellarmine, De Conf., ix.) The modern view appears to be that it is not so required.

The first mention of balsam as an ingredient in the composition of chrism seems to be found in the "Gregorian Sacramentary", a work belonging to the sixth century. But owing to the uncertainty mere olive-oil would be doubtful matter and could not, therefore, be employed apart from very grave necessity.

Jurisdiction in the internal forum, being partial and exercised only in private matters, does not constitute an ordinary.

Parish priests, therefore, are not ordinaries, though they have jurisdiction in the internal forum, for they have not jurisdiction in the external forum, being incapable of legislating and acting as judges; their administration is the exercise of paternal authority rather than of jurisdiction properly so called. First, they are divided into those having territorial jurisdiction and those who have not.

For proper and legitimate chrism the blessing by a bishop is necessary, and, probably too, such a blessing as is peculiar to it alone.

That the bishop is the ordinary minister of this blessing is certain. 2475.) For the full solemn ceremonial the consecrating prelate should be assisted by twelve priests, seven deacons, and seven subdeacons. Le Pontifical, II, 470-495.) Chrism is used in the administration of the Sacraments of Baptism, Confirmation, and Holy Orders, in the consecration of churches, chalices, patens, altars, and altar-stones, and in the solemn blessing of bells and baptismal water.

A mixture of oil of olives and balsam, blessed by a bishop in a special manner and used in the administration of certain sacraments and in the performance of certain ecclesiastical functions. II, n.102.) If either of the last two conditions is wanting the sacrament will be doubtfully valid.

That chrism may serve as valid matter for the Sacrament of Confirmation it must consist of pure oil of olives, and it must be blessed by a bishop, or at least by a priest delegated by the Holy See. To deal with the subject in a sufficiently exhaustive manner, it will be enough to touch upon (1) the origin and antiquity of chrism; (2) its constituent nature ; (3) its blessing ; and (4) its use and symbolical significance.

Thus when the Holy See is vacant, the ordinaries are the College of Cardinals and the cardinal camerlengo ; when a diocese the chapter and also the vicar capitular, and in general the interimary administrator ; so, too, the vicar, for religious orders.

These persons possess and exercise exterior jurisdiction, although with certain restrictions, and this in virtue of their office; they are therefore ordinaries.

In practice, the determination of the persons included under the term ordinary is of importance in the case of indults and the execution of rescripts issued from Rome.

This is an aromatic, resinous substance that is extracted from the wood of certain trees or plants, especially those belonging to the terebinthine group or family.

In the manufacture of this sweet-smelling unguent the early Greek Christians were wont to employ as many as forty different perfumed spices or essences (Goar, Euchologion, p. In the beginning the Christian Era balsam was obtained from Judea (opobalsam) and from Arabia Felix (balm of Mecca ), but in modern times it is also procured, and in superior quality, from the West Indies.

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